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Allergies and Restrictions

Hello Chef Fan’s! Once again we have a homework assignment that I did for my Contemporary Cuisine class. In this class we spend a lot of time talking about how we can make dishes healthier and to think outside the box when it comes to make something for someone. We are also talking a lot about different restrictions that people today have when it comes to eating. This could be in the form of allergies, or maybe even religious reasons why they can’t eat something. There is a lot of really good information in this assignment so take some time and read it over. 

Part 1: Research and list the 8 most common allergens

The most common food allergies, in order of frequency, are:

·         Milk

    • Frequency: Cow’s milk is the most common food allergy in American children. 2.5 percent of children have a cow’s milk allergy. It is not a major allergen for adults.
    • Outlook: Up to 80 percent of children will outgrow their allergy to dairy products by the age of six.
    • Where allergens hide: Deli meats, “non-dairy” creamer, skin and hair care products, canned tuna, and some craft paints.
    • Other sensitivities: A milk allergy is an immune response to milk proteins, which is different from lactose intolerance, in which your body lacks the enzyme needed to digest milk sugars. Children with milk allergy must avoid all dairy products, including those that are lactose-free.

·         Peanuts

    • Frequency: 1.4 percent of children and 0.6 percent of adults are allergic to peanuts. There is some evidence that the rate of peanut allergies is increasing among children in the United States.
    • Outlook: Peanut allergies are often very severe, with higher rates of anaphylactic reactions than milk, eggs, or wheat. They also tend to be lifelong allergies. Only 20 percent of children will outgrow their peanut allergy by the age of six.
    • Where allergens hide: Peanut butter is sometimes used as a thickener for chili or “glue” for egg rolls. Peanut oil may be found in some skin care products. A common source for accidental exposure in children is bird seed.
    • Other sensitivities: People with peanut allergies have a higher rate of tree nut allergies than the general population, even though peanuts are legumes (beans), not nuts.

·         Shellfish

    • Frequency: Shellfish allergy is the most common food allergy for adults. Two percent of American adults have a shellfish allergy. 0.1 percent of children have a shellfish allergy.
    • Outlook: Shellfish and fish are allergies that often develop later in life, unlike many other allergies. They tend to be severe, lifelong allergies.
    • Where allergens hide: Vitamins, pet food, fertilizer, fish food. People with shellfish allergies may react if they breathe in airborne particles from sizzling or boiling food.
    • Other sensitivities: People may be allergic to crustaceans (lobsters, shrimp, and crawfish) or mollusks (clams, oysters, mussels) or both.

·         Tree Nuts

    • Frequency: 1.1 percent of children and 0.5 percent of adults have a tree nut allergy. There is some evidence that the rate of tree nut allergies is increasing in the United States.
    • Outlook: Tree nuts tend to be lifelong allergies, and have higher rates of anaphylactic reactions than milk, eggs, or wheat. Only 9 percent of children will outgrow their tree nut allergy by age six.
    • Where allergens hide: There are so many names for tree nuts that it can be difficult to determine if a product contains nuts. Nut shells are sometimes used to stuff beanbag kick toys, such as hacky sacks.
    • Other sensitivities: Tree nuts are actually very different from each other, and it is possible to be allergic to one nut, for example almonds, but not others. It is also possible to be allergic to multiple nuts as well as peanuts.

·         Eggs

    • Frequency: Eggs are the second most common food allergy for children. 1.5 percent of children are allergic to hen’s eggs. Eggs are not major allergens for adults.
    • Outlook: Up to 80 percent of children will outgrow their allergy to eggs by the age of six.
    • Where allergens hide: Many immunizations are created by growing viruses in hen’s eggs. Ask your child’s doctor about which immunizations are safe for him. Other medications, such as anesthetics, may also contain eggs. “Egg substitutes” such as Egg Beaters contain eggs.
    • Other sensitivities: It is possible to be allergic to just egg white, just egg yolk, or both. It is probably not possible to completely separate a white and a yolk from an egg at home.

·         Fish

    • Frequency: 0.4 percent of adults and 0.1 percent of children have a fish allergy. It is possible to be allergic to just one species of fish and not others.
    • Outlook: Fish allergies often develop in adulthood. They tend to be severe, lifelong allergies.
    • Where allergens hide: Restaurants may fry fish in the same oil as other foods. Kosher gelatin (found in kosher pudding or marshmallows) is made from fish bones.
    • Other sensitivities: Fish that is less than fresh can develop high levels of natural histamine. When eaten, it can produce symptoms similar to food allergies, but called scromboid poisoning. If you have symptoms such as swelling of your mouth or throat, difficulty breathing, nausea or vomiting after eating fish, call 911. Taking a piece of the fish with you to the hospital will help doctors determine the cause of your symptoms.

·         Soy

    • Frequency: 0.4 percent of American children are allergic to soy. It is not a major allergen for adults.
    • Outlook: About 50 percent of children will outgrow their soy allergy by the age of seven.
    • Where allergens hide: Soy is a very common ingredient in packaged foods, hair and skin products, and even gasoline. Beanbag toss toys are often stuffed with soybeans. Some organic stuffed animals are made from soy fibers. Vitamin E is usually derived from soy, and there may not be a soy allergy warning on the ingredient label.
    • Other sensitivities: Because of the risk of developing a soy allergy, babies with milk allergy or milk protein intolerance should not be fed soy-based formula.

·         Wheat

    • Frequency: 0.4 percent of American children are allergic to wheat.
    • Outlook: About 80 percent of them will outgrow their wheat allergy by age six.
    • Where allergens hide: Soy sauce, beer, deli meats, imitation crab meat. Spelt and kamut contain the same proteins as wheat, and should not be eaten by people with wheat allergies. Non-food items such as glue, Play-Doh, lotions, and shampoos.
    • Other sensitivities: Wheat allergy is different from Celiac disease, which is an autoimmune disorder in which you cannot digest wheat or other gluten-containing grains, such as barley or rye. Wheat allergies can be difficult to figure out, since sometimes allergy symptoms only appear in combination with exercise

Part 2: Define the following and be sure to list examples of foods to be avoided if it is not clear from your definition. Be detailed but not too technical. Assume this was a document you were passing on to your staff.

Celiac- a digestive disease that damages the small intestine because of a sensitivity to gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats. This hereditary disorder interferes with the absorption of nutrients from food.

Diabetes- is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger)

There are three main types of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes: results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin.

Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency.

Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

High Blood Pressure/Hypertension- defined as a repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg — a systolic pressure above 140 with a diastolic pressure above 90. Chronic hypertension is a “silent” condition. Stealthy as a cat, it can cause blood vessel changes in the back of the eye (retina), abnormal thickening of the heart muscle, kidney failure, and brain damage.

For diagnosis, there is no substitute for measurement of blood pressure. Not having your blood pressure checked (or checking it yourself) is an invitation to hypertension. No specific cause for hypertension is found in 95% of cases. Hypertension is treated in a number of ways including:

  • Maintain normal body weight for adults (e.g. body mass index 20–25 kg/m2)
  • Reduce dietary sodium intake to <100 mmol/ day (<6 g of sodium chloride or <2.4 g of sodium per day)
  • Engage in regular aerobic physical activity such as brisk walking (≥30 min per day, most days of the week)
  • Limit alcohol consumption to no more than 3 units/day in men and no more than 2 units/day in women
  • Consume a diet rich in fruit and vegetables (e.g. at least five portions per day);
  • Consume a diet with reduced content of saturated and total fat.

Crohns Disease- Crohn’s disease is a common type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. It often involves the lower part of the small intestine, but can occur anywhere in the intestinal tract.  The condition, which can be genetic, is usually diagnosed in people in their teens or twenties. Crohn’s disease causes inflammation in the entire thickness of the bowel wall.  Common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, fever and weight loss.  People with the disease have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer.

No special diet has been proven effective for preventing or treating Crohn’s disease, but it is important that people who have Crohn’s disease follow a nutritious diet and avoid any foods that seem to worsen symptoms. People with Crohn’s disease often experience a decrease in appetite, which can affect their ability to receive the daily nutrition needed for good health and healing. In addition, Crohn’s disease is associated with diarrhea and poor absorption of necessary nutrients. Foods do not cause Crohn’s disease, but foods such as bulky grains, hot spices, alcohol, and milk products may increase diarrhea and cramping. The health care provider may refer a person with Crohn’s disease to a dietitian for guidance about meal planning.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome- a symptom-based diagnosis characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits. As a functional bowel disorder, IBS has no known organic cause. Diarrhea or constipation may predominate, or they may alternate Onset of IBS is more likely to occur after an infection (post-infectious, IBS-PI), a stressful life event, or onset of maturity.

Some people with IBS are likely to have food intolerances. In 2007 the evidence base was not strong enough to recommend restrictive diets. Many different dietary modifications have been attempted to improve the symptoms of IBS. Some are effective in certain sub-populations. As lactose intolerance and IBS have such similar symptoms a trial of a lactose-free diet is often recommended. A diet restricting fructose and fructan intake has been shown to successfully treat the symptoms in a dose-dependent manner in patients with fructose malabsorption and IBS.

While many IBS patients believe they have some form of dietary intolerance, tests attempting to predict food sensitivity in IBS have been disappointing. One study reported that an IgG antibody test was effective in determining food sensitivity in IBS patients, with patients on the elimination diet experiencing 10% greater symptom reduction than those on a sham diet. More data is necessary before IgG testing can be recommended.

Lactose Intolerant- food intolerance not allergy. A person with lactose intolerance lacks an enzyme that is needed to digest milk sugar, which causes symptoms such as gas, bloating, and abdominal pain.

Diverticulosis- A condition marked by small sacs or pouches (diverticula) in the walls of an organ such as the stomach or colon. These sacs can become inflamed and cause a condition called diverticulitis, which may be a risk factor for certain types of cancer. A diverticulitis diet starts with only clear liquids for a few days. Examples of beverages allowed on a clear liquid diet include:

  • Broth
  • Clear soda
  • Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple or grape juice
  • Ice chips
  • Ice pops without bits of fruit or fruit pulp
  • Plain gelatin
  • Plain water
  • Tea or coffee without cream

As you start feeling better, your doctor will recommend that you slowly add low-fiber foods. Examples of low-fiber foods include:

  • Canned or cooked fruits without skin or seeds
  • Canned or cooked vegetables such as green beans, peas and potatoes (without the skin)
  • Eggs, fish and poultry
  • Refined wheat and white bread
  • Fruit juice with little or no pulp
  • Low-fiber cereals
  • Milk, low-fat yogurt and cheese
  • White rice, pasta and noodles

Gout- A disease in which defective metabolism of uric acid causes arthritis, esp. in the smaller bones of the feet, deposition of chalkstones, and episodes of acute pain A gout diet reduces your intake of foods that are high in purines, which helps control your body’s production of uric acid. If you’re overweight or obese, lose weight. However, avoid fasting and rapid weight loss because these can promote a gout attack. Drink plenty of fluids to help flush uric acid from your body. Also avoid high-protein diets, which can cause you to produce too much uric acid (hyperuricemia).

To follow the diet:

  • Limit meat, poultry and fish. Animal proteins are high in purine. Avoid or severely limit high-purine foods, such as organ meats, herring, anchovies and mackerel. Red meat (beef, pork and lamb), fatty fish and seafood (tuna, shrimp, lobster and scallops) are associated with increased risk of gout. Because all meat, poultry and fish contain purines, limit your intake to 4 to 6 ounces (113 to 170 grams) daily.
  • Eat more plant-based proteins. You can increase your protein by including more plant-based sources, such as beans and legumes. This switch will also help you cut down on saturated fats, which may indirectly contribute to obesity and gout.
  • Limit or avoid alcohol. Alcohol interferes with the elimination of uric acid from your body. Drinking beer, in particular, has been linked to gout attacks. If you’re having an attack, avoid alcohol. However, when you’re not having an attack, drinking one or two 5-ounce (148 milliliter) servings a day of wine is not likely to increase your risk.
  • Drink plenty of fluids, particularly water. Fluids can help remove uric acid from your body. Aim for eight to 16 8-ounce (237 milliliter) glasses a day.
  • Choose low-fat or fat-free dairy products. Some studies have shown that drinking skim or low-fat milk and eating foods made with them, such as yogurt, help reduce the risk of gout. Aim for adequate dairy intake of 16 to 24 fluid ounces (473 to 710 milliliters) daily.
  • Choose complex carbohydrates. Eat more whole grains and fruits and vegetables and fewer refined carbohydrates, such as white bread, cakes and candy.
  • Limit or avoid sugar. Too many sweets can leave you with no room for plant-based proteins and low-fat or fat-free dairy products — the foods you need to avoid gout. Sugary foods also tend to be high in calories, so they make it easier to eat more than you’re likely to burn off. Although there’s debate about whether sugar has a direct effect on uric acid levels, sweets are definitely linked to overweight and obesity.

There’s also some evidence that drinking four to six cups of coffee a day lowers gout risk in men.

High Cholesterol- Elevated cholesterol in the blood involves abnormalities in the protein particles which transport all fat molecules, including cholesterol, within the water of the bloodstream. This may be related to diet, increased body fat, genetic factors (such as LDL receptor mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia) and the presence of other diseases such as diabetes and an underactive thyroid.

  1. Eat more vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. These wonders of nature may be one of the most powerful strategies in fighting heart disease. The increase in dietary fiber as part of a healthy diet helps lower bad LDL cholesterol. Aim for at least 4.5 cups of fruits and vegetables a day, three 1-ounce servings of whole grains a week, and four servings a week of nuts, legumes, and seeds.
  2. Choose fat calories wisely. Keep these goals in mind: Limit total fat grams; eat a bare minimum of saturated fats (less than 7% of total calories each day) and avoid trans fats (for example, fats found in some packaged baked goods, solid fats ); when you use added fat, use unsaturated fats (for example, fats found in vegetable oils such as canola, olive, and peanut oils). Another strategy is to use plant stanols or sterols as a dietary option to help lower bad LDL cholesterol.
  3. Eat a variety of lean protein foods. Chicken, fish, and vegetable proteins are better than red meats (beef, pork, and lamb), which contain more saturated fat and cholesterol. Fish and some vegetable sources contain omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to help reduce the risk of abnormal heart rhythms that can lead to sudden cardiac death. They also help lower levels of blood fats (triglycerides), fight atherosclerosis, and decrease blood pressure. The American Heart Association recommends that at least two 3.5-ounce servings a week of fish be included as part of a heart-healthy diet. Limit processed meats to no more than 2 servings a week.
  4. Limit cholesterol and fat consumption. The American Heart Association recommends less than 300 milligrams a day of dietary cholesterol for healthy people and less than 200 mg if you have heart disease. Limiting dietary cholesterol has an added bonus: You’ll also cut out saturated fat, as cholesterol and saturated fat are usually found in the same foods (mainly meat proteins). Get energy by eating complex carbohydrates (whole wheat pasta, brown or wild rice, whole-grain breads) and limit simple carbohydrates (regular soft drinks, sugar, sweets). Limit sugar-sweetened drinks to less than 450 calories a week.
  5. Feed your body regularly. Skipping meals often leads to overeating. For some, eating five to six mini-meals may help keep cravings in check, help control blood sugars and regulate metabolism. This approach may not be as effective for those who are tempted to overeat every time they are exposed to food. For these individuals, three balanced meals a day may be a better approach.

Veganism- is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products. Ethical vegans reject the commodity status of animals and the use of animal products for any purpose, while dietary vegans or strict vegetarians eliminate them from their diet only. Another form, environmental veganism, rejects the use of animal products on the premise that the industrial practice is environmentally damaging and unsustainable.

Any plant-based dish may be vegan. Common vegan dishes prepared without animal ingredients include ratatouille, falafel, hummus, veggie burritos, rice and beans, veggie stir-fry, and pasta primavera. Ingredients such as tofu, tempeh, and seitan are widely used in vegan cuisine. Plant cream and plant milk—such as almond milk, grain milk, or soy milk—are used instead of cows’ or goats’ milk. Vegan recipes will use apple sauce, ground flax seeds, mashed potatoes, soft or silken tofu, or commercial starch-based egg-substitute products, instead of chickens’ eggs

Lact-Ovo Vegetarian- is a vegetarian who does not eat animal flesh of any kind, but is willing to consume dairy and egg products. In contrast, a vegetarian who consumes no animal products at all is called a vegan.

Pescetarianism- is the practice of a diet that includes seafood but not the flesh of other animals. A pescetarian diet shares many of its components with a vegetarian diet and includes vegetables, fruit, nuts, grains, beans, eggs, and dairy, but unlike a vegetarian diet also includes fish and shellfish.

Kosher (Judaism)- is the set of Jewish dietary laws. Here are 10 examples

  1. Certain animals may not be eaten at all. This restriction includes the flesh, organs, eggs and milk of the forbidden animals.
  2. Of the animals that may be eaten, the birds and mammals must be killed in accordance with Jewish law.
  3. Rodents, reptiles, amphibians, and insects are all forbidden.
  4. All blood must be drained from meat and poultry or broiled out of it before it is eaten.
  5. Certain parts of permitted animals may not be eaten.
  6. Fruits and vegetables are permitted, but must be inspected for bugs (which cannot be eaten)
  7. Meat (the flesh of birds and mammals) cannot be eaten with dairy. Fish, eggs, fruits, vegetables and grains can be eaten with either meat or dairy. (According to some views, fish may not be eaten with meat).
  8. Must wait a significant amount of time between eating meat and dairy. Opinions differ, and vary from three to six hours after meat.
  9. Utensils (including pots and pans and other cooking surfaces) that have come into contact with meat may not be used with dairy, and vice versa. Utensils that have come into contact with non-kosher food may not be used with kosher food. This applies only where the contact occurred while the food was hot.
  10. Grape products made by non-Jews may not be eaten.
  11.  Bishul Yisroel- In certain circumstances, a Jew (that is, someone who is required to keep kosher) must be involved in the preparation of food for it to be kosher.
  12. Cholov Yisroel- An ancient rule required that a Jew must be present from the time of milking to the time of bottling to ensure that the milk actually came from kosher animals and did not become mixed with milk from non-kosher animals.
  13. Mevushal- Most kosher wines in America are made using a process of pasteurization called mevushal, which addresses some of the kashrut issues related to grape beverages.

Halaal (Islami)- applied to many facets of life; and one of the most common uses of these terms is in reference to meat products, food contact materials, and pharmaceuticals. In Islam there are many things that are clearly halal or haraam. There are also items which are not as clear, and for which further information is needed. Items that are not clear are called mashbooh, which means “questionable.” ‘Halal’ means permissible. ‘Haram’ means forbidden.

In Islam, other forbidden items include pork and all its products; ‘animals improperly slaughtered’; alcoholic drinks, including all forms of intoxicants; carnivorous animals; birds of prey; and any food contaminated with any of these products.

Lent (Catholicism)- The period preceding Easter that in the Christian Church is devoted to fasting, abstinence, and penitence in commemoration of Christ’s fasting in the wilderness. In the Western Church it runs from Ash Wednesday to Holy Saturday and so includes forty weekdays

Add two more “restrictions” for bonus points

Jainism- is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Jains are vegetarians and here are some of the dietary laws they hold

  •  Night Meals are forbidden because of the many creatures that come out at night and which may be accidentally killed due to poor lighting or attraction to fire.
  • Freshness: Food must be prepared fresh daily. Keeping cooked food overnight is forbidden. Ground spices have an expiry of 3 days during rain, 5 days in summer and 7 days in winter.
  • Vegetarianism: Traditionally Jains have been lacto-vegetarians, but modern dairy farming methods, particularly what happens to the male calves (the veal market) has caused many to pursue a vegan diet eating no animal products.
  • Water is filtered through three layers of cotton cloth before use for cooking or drinking. Water should boiled and cooled before drinking to avoid illness caused by micro-organisms. Illness is thought to engender intolerance.
  • Root Vegetables: (potatoes, carrots, turnips) are forbidden because uprooting a plant kills it (non-violence) and because many tiny creatures may inhabit roots.
  • Beansprouts are prohibited because they are living and eating them kills the whole plant.
  • Cereal Grains are permitted.
  • Fruits: Most are permitted but fruits that bleed milky sap when cut, Jackfruit, for instance, are forbidden. Many Jains avoid fruits that have a red meat-like appearance (tomatoes, watermelon).
  • Vegetable Greens are considered marginal because plucking them involves pain to the plant. Most Jains consider greens acceptable but cabbages and other greens where the whole top is cut and the plant thus killed are forbidden.
  • Mushrooms, Fungus and Yeasts are forbidden because they are parasites, grow in non-hygienic environments and may harbor other life forms.
  • Honey is forbidden as the excrement of bees.
  • Eggs are forbidden as progeny of five-sensed beings.
  • Cheese and Yogurt are permissible (for non vegan Jains) but must be freshly prepared on the day they are eaten and no animal rennet may be used to make them. Vegetable and Microbial rennet is acceptable but in strict practice only acid coagulated fresh cheese will fit the same day rule. The previous day’s yogurt may not be use as a starter the next day.
  • Vinegar is forbidden, it’s a product of fermentation (yeast to alcohol then bacterial to vinegar).
  • Alcohol is forbidden because it may destroy the power of discrimination, create delusions and result in ill health. Also alcoholic beverages are considered non-vegetarian because of FDA allowed additives, some of which are of animal origin.
  • Onions, Garlic, Scallions, Chives and Leeks fall under the category of “roots” the pulling of which kills the whole plant so they are forbidden.
  • Silver Foils common in India as decoration on sweets are banned because the foils are pounded out between layers of bull intestine and are therefor not vegetarian.

Hinduism- Devout Hindus believe that all of God’s creatures are worthy of respect and compassion, regardless of whether they are humans or animals. Therefore, Hinduism encourages being vegetarian and avoiding the eating of any animal meat or flesh. However, not all Hindus choose to practice vegetarianism, and they may adhere to the religion’s dietary codes in varying degrees of strictness. For example, some Hindus refrain from eating beef and pork, which are strictly prohibited in the Hindu diet code, but do eat other meats. Ingredients that are forbidden:

  • Meat
  • Fish
  • Poultry
  • Eggs

Although some Hindus may occasionally eat meat, almost all avoid beef.

In addition, strict practitioners also abstain from:

  • Garlic
  • Onions
  • Mushrooms that
  • Any alcohol
  • Tea and coffee (obtaining caffeine)

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